Publications
B. Kirby, 2013, The Value of Flexible Generation, PowerGen 2013, November

P. Denholm, J. Jorgenson, M. Hummon, D. Palchak, B. Kirby, O. Ma, M. O'Malley, 2013,
The Impact of Wind
and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage, NREL/TP-6A20-60568, November

D. Bhatnagar, A. B. Currier, J. Hernandez, O. Ma, B. Kirby, 2013,
Market and Policy Barriers for Energy Storage
Deployment, SAND2013-7606, September

M. Hummon, P. Denholm, J. Jorgenson, D. Palchak, B. Kirby, O. Ma, 2013,
Fundamental Drivers of the Cost
and Price of Operating Reserves, NREL/TP-6A20-58491, July

O. Ma, N. Alkadi, P. Cappers, P. Denholm, J. Dudley, S. Goli, M. Hummon, S. Kiliccote, J. MacDonald, N.
Matson, D. Olsen, C. Rose, M. Sohn, M. Starke, B. Kirby, M. O’Malley, 2013,
Demand Response for Ancillary
Services, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid

E. Ela, B. Kirby, A. Botterud, C. Milostan, I. Krad, V. Koritarov, 2013,
The Role of Pumped Storage Hydro
Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation, NREL/CP-5500-58655, HydroVision, May

P. Denholm, J. Jorgenson, M. Hummon, T. Jenkin, D. Palchak, B. Kirby, O. Ma, M. O’Malley, 2013,
The Value of
Energy Storage for Grid Applications, NREL/TP-6A20-58465, May

M. Milligan, K. Clark, J. King, B. Kirby, T. Guo, G. Liu, 2013,
Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy
Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection, NREL/TP-5500-57115, March

B. Kirby, D. Brooks, 2013,
Joint TVA EPRI Evaluation of Steel Arc Furnace Regulation Impacts and Potential
Innovative Mitigation Solutions: Phase I
, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2013. 3002000181, January

B. Kirby, 2012,
Co‐Optimizing Energy and Ancillary Services from Energy Limited Hydro and Pumped Storage
Plants, EPRI, HydroVision, July

J. King, B. Kirby, M Milligan, S Beuning, 2012,
Operating Reserve Reductions From a Proposed Energy
Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection, NREL/TP-5500-54660, May

Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C., 2012,
Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power
Penetration Systems, Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, July

L. Schwartz, K. Porter, C. Mudd, S. Fink, J. Rogers, L. Bird, L. Schwartz, M. Hogan, D. Lamont, B. Kirby, 2012,
Meeting Renewable Energy Targets in the West at Least Cost: The Integration Challenge, Western Governors’
Association, June

M. Milligan, B. Hodge, B. Kirby, C. Clark, 2012,
Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy?,
NREL/TP-5500-54905, May

E. Ela, M. Milligan, B. Kirby, A. Tuohy, D. Brooks, 2012,
Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency
Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service, NREL Report No. NREL/TP-5500-54393, March

J. C. Smith, B. Kirby, K. Porter, R. Zavadil, 2012,
China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program Phase II
Preparation: Integration Study Task Descriptions, World Bank, February

B. Kirby, M.J. O’Malley, O. Ma, P. Cappers, D. Corbus, S. Kiliccote,  O. Onar, M. Starke, and D. Steinberg,
Load
participation in Ancillary Services: Workshop Report, Department of Energy, USA, 2011

M. Lauby, M. Ahlstrom, D. Brooks, S. Beuning, J. Caspary, W. Grant, B. Kirby, M. Milligan, M. O’Malley, M.
Patel, R. Piwko, P. Pourbeik, D. Shirmohammadi, J. C. Smith, 2011, Balancing Act, IEEE Power and Energy
Magazine, November/December

J. King, B. Kirby, M. Milligan, S. Beuning, 2011,
Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market
with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection, NREL/TP-5500-52330, November

M. Milligan, E. Ela, B. Hodge, D. Lew, B. Kirby, C. Clark, J. DeCesaro, K. Lynn, 2011,
Integration of Variable
Generation, Cost-Causation, and Integration Costs, Electricity Journal, November

D. Brooks, A. Tuohy, S. Deb, S. Jampani, B. Kirby, J. King, 2011,
DOE: Integrating Midwest Wind Energy into
Southeast Electricity Markets, EPRI DE-EE0001377, October

E. Ela, M. Milligan, B. Kirby, 2011,
Operating Reserves and Variable Generation, NREL/TP-5500-51978, August

M. Milligan, E. Ela, B. Hodge, B. Kirby, D. Lew, C. Clark, J. DeCesaro, and K. Lynn, 2011,
Cost-Causation and
Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation, NREL/TP-5500-51860, June

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, E. Ela, 2010,
Providing Minute-to-Minute Regulation from Wind Plants, 9th International
Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power, October

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, J. King, S. Beuning, 2010,
Benefit of Regional Energy Balancing Service on Wind
Integration in the Western Interconnection of the United States, 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale
Integration of Wind Power, October

M. Milligan, et al,
Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison, 9th
International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power, October

M. Milligan and B. Kirby, 2010,
Market Characteristics for Efficient Integration of Variable Generation in the
Western Interconnection, NREL/TP-550-48192, August

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, J. King, S. Beuning, 2010,
Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to
Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation, NREL/MP-550-48427, August

J. Smith, S. Beuning, H.e Durrwachter, E. Ela, D. Hawkins, B. Kirby, W. Lasher, J. Lowell, K. Porter, K.
Schuyler, P. Sotkiewicz, 2010,
Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on US Electricity Markets, IEEE PES, July

E. Ela, B. Kirby, E. Lannoye, M. Milligan, D. Flynn, R. Zavadil, M. O’Malley, 2010,
Evolution of Operating
Reserve Determination in Wind Power Integration Studies, IEEE PES, July

B. Kirby and M. Milligan, 2010,
Utilizing Load Response for Wind and Solar Integration and Power System
Reliability, WindPower 2010, June

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, and S. Beuning, 2010,
Combining Balancing Areas’ Variability: Impacts on Wind
Integration in the Western Interconnection, WindPower 2010, June

P. Denholm, E. Ela, B. Kirby, and M. Milligan, 2010,
The Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity
Generation, NREL/TP-6A2-47187, January

L. Kirsch and B. Kirby, 2009, Screening Demand Response as a Distribution Resource:  Case Studies. EPRI
Reports #1017900, December

L. Kirsch and B. Kirby, 2009, Screening Demand Response as a Transmission Resource. EPRI Reports
#1017896, December

M. Milligan, K. Porter, E. DeMeo, P. Denholm, H. Holttinen, B. Kirby, N. Miller, A. Mills,
M. O’Malley, M. Schuerger, and L., 2009,
Wind Power Myths Debunked, IEEE Power and Energy,
November/December

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2009,
Capacity Requirements to Support Inter-Balancing Area Wind Delivery, NREL/TP-550-
46274, July

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, R. Gramlich, M. Goggin, 2009,
Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind
Penetration Potential, NREL/TP-550-46273, July 2009

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, 2009,
Calculating Wind Integration Costs: Separating Wind Energy Value from Integration
Cost Impacts, NREL/TP-550-46275, July

B. Kirby, M. Starke, S. Adhikari, 2009,
NYISO Industrial Load Response Opportunities: Resource and Market
Assessment, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
June

NERC, 2009,
Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, North American Electric Reliability
Corporation, April

D. Todd, M. Caulfield, B. Helms of ALCOA, M. Starke, B. Kirby, J. Kueck of ORNL, 2009,
Providing Reliability
Services through Demand Response: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa
Inc., ORNL/TM 2008/233, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, January

L. Kirsch and B. Kirby, Utilization of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response as Resources for Transmission
and Distribution Planning, EPRI Reports #1016360

L. Kirsch and B. Kirby, Integration of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Into Distribution Planning
Processes. EPRI Reports #1015985

L. Kirsch and B. Kirby, Integration of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Into Transmission Planning
Processes. EPRI Reports #1016093

B. Kirby, J. Kueck, T. Laughner, K. Morris, 2008,
Spinning Reserve from Hotel Load Response, Electricity
Journal, Dec., 2008, Vol. 21, Issue 10

B. Kirby, J. Kueck, T. Laughner, K. Morris, 2008,
Spinning Reserve from Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress,
ORNL/TM 2008/217, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, October

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2008,
An Examination of Capacity and Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy on Power
Systems, Electricity Journal, Aug./Sept. 2008, Vol. 21, Issue 7

H. Holttinen, M. Milligan, B. Kirby, T. Acker, V. Neimane, T. Molinski, 2008,
Using Standard Deviation as a
Measure of Increased Operational Reserve Requirement for Wind Power, Wind Engineering, Volume 32, No. 4

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2008,
The Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on
Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy, Wind Engineering Volume 32, No. 4

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, 2008,
The Impact of Balancing Area Size and Ramping Requirements on Wind Integration,
Wind Engineering Volume 32, No. 4

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2008,
Examination of Capacity and Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy on Power Systems,
NREL/TP-500-42872, July

E. Ela and B. Kirby, 2008,
ERCOT Event on February 26, 2008: Lessons Learned, NREL/TP-500-43373, July

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, 2008,
Analysis of Sub-Hourly Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy and Balancing Area Size,
WindPower 2008, NREL/CP-500-43434, June

K. Dragoon, B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2008,
Do Wind Forecasts Make Good Generation Schedules? , WindPower
2008, NREL/CP-500-43507, June

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2008,
Facilitating Wind Development: The Importance of Electric Industry Structure, The
Electricity Journal, Volume 21, Issue 3, April, and National Renewable Energy Lab, NREL/TP-500-43251, May

R. Zavadil, N. Miller, A. Ellis, E. Muljadi, E. Camm, and, B. Kirby, 2007,
Queuing Up, IEEE Power & Energy
Magazine, Volume 5, Number 6, November/December

B. Kirby, K. Porter, 2007,
Increasing Renewable Resources: How ISOs and RTOs are Helping Meet This Public
Policy Objective, ISO/RTO Council, October

D. Brooks, B. Kirby, A. Del Rosso, 2007,
Utilization of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response as Resources for
Transmission and Distribution Planning: Current Utility Practices and Recommendations for Increasing
Opportunities as T&D Alternatives
. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA

B. Kirby, J. Kueck, H. Leake, M. Muhlheim, 2007,
Nuclear Generating Stations and Transmission Grid Reliability,
North American Power Symposium, September

B. Kirby, 2007,
Ancillary Services: Technical and Commercial Insights, Wärtsilä North America Inc., June

M. Milligan, B. Kirby, 2007,
The Impact of Balancing Areas Size, Obligation Sharing, and Ramping Capability on
Wind Integration, American Wind Energy Association, WindPower 2007, June

Y. Wan, M. Milligan, B. Kirby, 2007,
Impact of Energy Imbalance Tariff on Wind Energy, American Wind Energy
Association, WindPower 2007, June

B. Kirby, 2007,
Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements, IEEE Power
Engineering Society General Meeting, June

G. Heffner, C, Goldman, B. Kirby, M. Kintner-Meyer, 2007,
Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of
International Experience, ORNL/TM 2007/060, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May

B. Kirby, 2007,
Evaluating Transmission Costs and Wind Benefits in Texas: Examining the ERCOT CREZ
Transmission Study, The Wind Coalition and Electric Transmission Texas, LLC, Texas PUC Docket NO. 33672,
April

B. Kirby, 2006,
Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ, ORNL/TM 2006/565, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, December

J. Kueck, B. Kirby, T. Rizy, F. Li, N. Fall, 2006,
Economics of Reactive Power Supply from Distributed Energy
Resources, Electricity Journal, December

B. Kirby, 2006,
The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable
Operations, ORNL/TM 2006/512, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, July

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, E. Wan, 2006,
Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts, American
Wind Energy Association, WindPower 2006, June

M. Milligan, H. Shiu, B. Kirby, K. Jackson, 2006,
A Multi-year Analysis of Renewable Energy Impacts in
California: Results from the Renewable Portfolio Standards Integration Cost Analysis, American Wind Energy
Association, WindPower 2006, June

H. Shiu, M. Milligan, B. Kirby, K. Jackson, 2005,
California Renewables Portfolio Standard Renewable Generation
Integration Cost Analysis: Multi-Year Analysis Results And Recommendations,  The California Energy
Commission, December

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, 2005,
A Method and Case Study for Estimating The Ramping Capability of a Control Area or
Balancing Authority and Implications for Moderate or High Wind Penetration, American Wind Energy
Association, WindPower 2005, May

B. Kirby, 2004,
Frequency Regulation Basics and Trends, ORNL/TM 2004/291, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
December

J. Kueck, B. Kirby, L. Tolbert, T. Rizy, 2004,
Voltage Regulation: Tapping Distributed Energy Resources, Public
Utilities Fortnightly, September

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, Y. Makarov, J. Lovekin, K. Jackson, H. Shiu, 2004,
California RPS Integration Cost Analysis-
Phase III: Recommendations for Implementation, California Energy Commission, July

J. Kueck, B. Kirby, 2004,
Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality, ORNL/TM-2004/91, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory, June

J. Kueck, B. Kirby, 2004,
Demand Response Research Plan to Reflect the Needs of the California Independent
System Operator, ORNL/TM 2004/2, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, January

B. Kirby, M. Milligan, Y. Makarov, D. Hawkins, K. Jackson, H. Shiu, 2003,
California RPS Integration Cost
Analysis-Phase I: One Year Analysis of Existing Resources, California Energy Commission, December

B. Kirby, J. Kueck, 2003,
Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California
Department of Water Resources, ORNL/TM 2003/99, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, November

E. Hirst, B. Kirby, 2003,
Water Heaters to the Rescue: Demand Bidding in Electric Reserve Markets, Public
Utilities Fortnightly, September

R. Cowart, J. Raab, C. Goldman, R. Weston, J. Schlegel, R. Sedano, J. Lazar, B. Kirby, E. Hirst, 2003,
Dimensions of Demand Response: Capturing Customer Based Resources in New England’s Power Systems and
Markets. Report and Recommendations of the New England Demand Response Initiative, New England Demand
Response Initiative, July

B. Parsons, M. Milligan, R. Zavadil, D. Brooks, B. Kirby, K. Dragoon, J. Caldwell, 2003,
Grid Impacts of Wind
Power: A Summary of Recent Studies in the United States, EWEC Wind Energy Journal, June

E. Hirst, B. Kirby, 2003,
Allocating Costs of Ancillary Services: Contingency Reserves and Regulation, ORNL/TM
2003/152, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, June

J. D. Kueck, B. J. Kirby, 2003,
The Distribution System of the Future, The Electricity Journal, June

B. Kirby, E. Hirst, 2003,
Technical Issues Related To Retail-Load Provision of Ancillary Services, New England
Demand Response Initiative, May

E. Hirst, B. Kirby, 2003,
Opportunities for Demand Participation in New England Contingency-Reserve Markets,
New England Demand Response Initiative, May

J. Kueck, R. Staunton, B. Kirby, 2003,
Microgrids and Demand Response: How Software Controls Can Bridge The
Gap Between Wholesale Market Prices and Consumer Behavior,  Public Utility Fortnightly, May 15

B. Kirby, 2003,
Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads, ORNL/TM 2003/19, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge TN, March

J. D. Kueck, R.H. Staunton, S. D. Labinov, B.J. Kirby, 2003,
Microgrid Energy Management System, ORNL/TM
2002/242, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January

B. Kirby, J. Dyer, C. Martinez, R. Shoureshi, R. Dagle, 2002,
Frequency Control Concerns In The North American
Electric Power System, ORNL/TM 2003/41, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, December

B. Kirby, M. Ally, 2002,
Spinning Reserves from Controllable Packaged Through the Wall Air Conditioner (PTAC)
Units, ORNL/TM 2002/286, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, November

B. Kirby, R. Staunton, 2002,
Technical Potential For Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey, ORNL/TM
2002/271, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, November

R. Lee, S. Hadley, C. Liu and B. Kirby, 2002,
Electricity Transmission Congestion in The U.S., Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, June

B. Kirby, J. Van Dyke, C. Martinez and A. Rodriguez, 2002,
Congestion Management Requirements, Methods
and Performance Indices, ORNL/TM 2002/119, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, June

B. Kirby and E. Hirst, 2002,
Reliability Management and Oversight, U.S. Department of Energy National
Transmission Grid Study, May

E. Hirst and B. Kirby, 2002,
Transmission Planning and the Need for New Capacity, U.S. Department of Energy
National Transmission Grid Study, May

J. Kueck, B. Kirby and L. Markel, 2002,
Best Practices For Distribution – Phase 2 Report – A Toolkit of
Noteworthy Reliability Measurement Practices
, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, March

B. Kirby and J. Kueck, 2002,
Re Electricity Costs: How Savvy Building Owners Can Save, Strategic Planning for
Energy and the Environment, Vol. 21, No. 3

W. P. Poore, T. K. Stovall, B. J. Kirby, D. T. Rizy, J. D. Kueck, and J. P. Stovall, 2002,
Connecting Distributed
Energy Resources to the Grid: Their Benefits to the DER Owner/customer, the Utility, and Society, ORNL/TM
2001/290, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, February

J. Eto, C. Goldman, G. Heffner, B. Kirby, J. Kueck, M. Kintner Meyer, J. Dagle, T. Mount, W. Schultze, R.
Thomas, R. Zimmerman, 2002,
Innovative Developments in Load as a Reliability Resource, IEEE Power
Engineering Society, February

R. Staunton, J Kueck, B. Kirby, J. Eto 2001,
Demand response: An Overview of Enabling Technologies, Public
Utilities Fortnightly, November

B. Kirby 2001,
Restructured Electricity Markets Offer Increased Complexities and Opportunities for Cogeneration,
C
ogeneration and Competitive Power Journal, fall

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2001,
Key Transmission Planning Issues, The Electricity Journal, October

C. R. Hudson, B. J. Kirby, J. D. Kueck, R. H. Staunton 2001,
Industrial Use of Distributed Generation in Real-
Time Energy and Ancillary Service Markets, ORNL/TM-2001/136, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge
TN, September

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2001,
Transmission Planning: Weighing Effects on Congestion Costs, Public Utility
Fortnightly, July

J. D. Kueck, B. J. Kirby, J. Eto, R. H. Staunton, C. Marnay, C. A. Martinez, C. Goldman 2001,
Load as a
Reliability Resource in Restructured Electricity Markets, ORNL/TM-2001/97, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge TN, June

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2001,
Transmission Planning for a Restructuring U.S. Electricity Industry, Edison Electric
Institute, Washington, DC, June

R. Hudson, B. Kirby, Y. Wan 2001,
Regulation Requirements for Wind Generation Facilities, American Wind
Energy Association, June

B. Kirby and E. Hirst  2001,
Real-Time Performance Metrics for Generators Providing the Regulation Ancillary
Service, The Electricity Journal, April

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2001,
Metering, Communications and Computing for Price-Responsive Demand Programs,
April

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 2001,
Using Five-Minute Data to Allocate Load-Following and Regulation Requirements
Among Individual Customers, ORNL/TM-2001-13, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2001,
Measuring Generator Performance in Providing Regulation and Load-Following
Ancillary Services, ORNL/TM-2000-383, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January

E. Hirst, B. Kirby, 2001,
Real-Time Balancing Operations and Markets: Key to Competitive Wholesale Electricity
Markets, January

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2000,
Retail-Load Participation in Competitive Wholesale Electricity Markets, Edison
Electric Institute, Washington, DC, and Project for Sustainable FERC Energy Policy, Alexandria, VA, Dec

J. Cadogan, M. Milligan, Y. Wan, and B. Kirby 2000,
Short Term Output Variations in Wind Farms - Implications
for Ancillary Services in the United States, October

B. Kirby and J. Kueck 2000,
How Buildings Can Prosper By Interacting With Restructured Electricity Markets,
ACEEE, August

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 2000,
Pricing Ancillary Services so Customers Pay for What They Use, EPRI, July

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2000,
Time Averaging Period for the Regulation Ancillary Service, IEEE Power Engineering
Review, July

M. Gallaher, S. Johnston, and B. Kirby 2000,
Changing Measurement and Standards Needs in a Deregulated
Electric Utility Industry, National Institute of Standards & Technology, May

B. Kirby 2000,
Restructured Electricity Markets Offer Increased Complexity and Increased Opportunities,
Association of Energy Engineers, Globalcon 2000, April

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 2000,
Bulk-Power Reliability and Commercial Implications of Distributed Resources,
NARUC, April

T. Key and B. Kirby 2000,
Technical Evaluation of Operational and Ownership Issues of Distributed Generation,
Office of Ratepayer Advocates, California Public Utility Commission, Rulemaking 99-10-025, April

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2000,
Bulk-Power Basics: Reliability and Commerce, The Regulatory Assistance Project,
Gerdiner, ME, March

B. Kirby and J. Kueck 2000,
Review of the Structure of Bulk Power Markets, ORNL/TM-2000/41, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 2000,
Customer-Specific Metrics for The Regulation and Load-Following Ancillary Services,
ORNL/CON-474, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 2000,
Ancillary Services: A Call for Fair Prices, Public Utilities Fortnightly, January

B. Kirby and N. Lenssen 1999,
Shifting the Balance of Power: Grid Interconnection of Distributed Generation, E
Source, The Distributed Energy Series, Boulder, Colorado, October

B. Parsons, Y. Wan, B. Kirby,
Wind Farm Power Fluctuations, Ancillary Services, And System Operating Impact
Analysis Activities In The United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO, July

E. Hirst, B. Kirby and S. Hadley 1999,
Generation and Transmission Adequacy in a Restructuring U.S. Electricity
Industry
, Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC, June

B. Ernst, Y. Wan and B. Kirby 1999,
Short term Power Fluctuation of Wind Turbines: Looking at Data from the
German 250 Mw Measurement Program from the Ancillary Services Viewpoint, American Wind Energy
Association Windpower ‘99 Conference, Washington, DC, June

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1999,
Load as a resource in Providing Ancillary Services, American Power Conference,
Chicago, Illinois, April

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1999,
Maintaining System Black Start in Competitive Bulk-Power Markets, American
Power Conference, Chicago, Illinois, April

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1999,
What is System Control?, American Power Conference, Chicago, Illinois, April

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1999,
Technical and Market Issues for Operating Reserves, The Electricity Journal, March

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1999,
New Blackstart Standards Needed for Competitive Markets, IEEE Power
Engineering Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp9, February

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1999,
Does Block Scheduling Waste Money?, Electrical World, January/February

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Operating Reserves and Bulk-Power Reliability, Energy International Journal, Vol.
23, No. 11, pp. 949-959

B. Kirby and E. Hirst, 1998,
Generator Response to Intrahour Load Fluctuations, IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems, Vol 13 #4, PE-627-PWRS-0-12-1997, November

E. Hirst and B. Kirby, 1998,
Defining Intra- and Interhour Load Swings, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
Vol 13 #4, PE-628-PWRS-0-12-1997, November

E. Hirst and B. Kirby, 1998,
The Functions, Metrics, Costs, and Prices for Three Ancillary Services, Edison
Electric Institute, Economics Department, October

B. J. Kirby, J. D. Kueck, A. B. Poole 1998,
Evaluation of the Reliability of the Offsite Power Supply as a
Contributor to Risk of Nuclear Plants, ORNL/NRC/LTR/98-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN,
August.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Ancillary Services: The Forgotten Issue, Electric Perspectives, July-August

B. Kirby, E. Hirst 1998,
Voltage Control In A Changing US Electricity Industry, Utilities Policy, Vol 7, No. 2, June

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Simulating the Operation of Markets for Bulk-Power Ancillary Services, The Energy
Journal, Vol. 19, No. 3

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Creating Markets for Ancillary Services, Pricing Energy in a Competitive Market,
EPRI, June

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Maintaining Reliability in a Restructured Industry, Public Power, May-June

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1998,
Characteristics of Concern in Supplying, Consuming, and Measuring Ancillary
Services
, The Future of Power Delivery in the 21st Century, The Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto,
California, May

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Ancillary Services: The Neglected Feature of Bulk-Power Markets, The Electricity
Journal, April.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Unbundling Generation and Transmission Services for Competitive Electricity
Markets, ORNL/CON-454, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1998,
Unbundling Generation and Transmission Services for Competitive Electricity
Markets: Examining Ancillary Services
, The National Regulatory Research Institute, January.

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1997,
Generator Response to Intrahour load Fluctuations, IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems, Vol 13 #4, PE-627-PWRS-0-12-1997

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1997,
Ancillary-Service Details: Voltage Control, ORNL/CON-453, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, December.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1997,
Cutting Electricity Costs for Industrial Plants in a Real-Time World, Public Utilities
Fortnightly, December.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1997,
Ancillary-Service Details: Operating Reserves, ORNL/CON-452, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, November.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1997.
Ancillary Services: The Neglected Feature of Bulk-Power Markets, Electricity Journal

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1997,
Creating Competitive Markets for Ancillary Services, ORNL/CON-448, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, October.

B. Kirby, E. Hirst, B. Parsons, K. Porter, and J. Codagan, 1997,
Electric Industry Restructuring, Ancillary
Services, and the Potential Impact on Wind, American Wind Energy Association, June

E. Hirst and B. Kirby, 1997,
Dynamic Scheduling Can Enable Competitive Markets, Public Utility Fortnightly,
April, 15

E. Hirst and B. Kirby, 1997,
Ancillary-Service Details: Dynamic Scheduling, ORNL/CON-438, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, January

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1996,
Costs for Electric-Power Ancillary Services, Electricity Journal, Volume 9, Number
10, December.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1996,
Ancillary-Service Details: Regulation, Load Following, and Generator Response,
ORNL/CON-433, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, September.

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1996,
Unanswered Questions Ancillary Services, Electric Perspectives, July-August

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1996,
Unbundling Electricity: Ancillary Services, IEEE Power Engineering Review, June

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1996,
Ancillary Services and the use of FACTS Devices, The Future of Power Delivery
Conference, EPRI, April

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1996,
Ancillary-Services Costs for Twelve U.S. Electric Utilities, ORNL/CON-427, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, March.

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1996,
Electric-Power Ancillary Services, ORNL/CON-426, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN, February

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1996,
Ancillary Services, American Power Conference, Chicago, Illinois, February

B. Kirby and E. Hirst 1996,
Supplemental Comments on Ancillary Services, Testimony before the U.S.A.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, January

E. Hirst and B Kirby 1995,
The Devil Is In The Details!, the Electricity Journal, Vol. 8, Num. 10, December

E. Hirst and B. Kirby 1995,
Testimony Before The U.S.A. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Ancillary
Services
, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, June

B. Kirby, E. Hirst, and J. VanCoevering 1995,
Unbundling Electric Generation and Transmission Services,
Energy, Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 1191-1203, Elsevier Science Ltd.

P. Barnes, W. Dykas, B. Kirby, S. Purucker, and J. Lawler 1995,
The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
into Electric Power Transmission Systems, ORNL-6827, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, June

W. P. Dykas, B. J. Kirby and J. P. Stovall 1995,
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Utility
Application Study of Municipal Light & Power, Anchorage
, Alaska, Draft, ORNL 6877, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, June

B. Kirby, E. Hirst, and J. VanCoevering 1995,
Identification and Definition of Unbundled Electric Generation and
Transmission Services, ORNL/CON-415, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, March.